outline and evaluate factors affecting eyewitness testimony

Eye witness testimonies are accounts from witnesses to a crime or accident given as evidence in a court or to the police. Ashleigh Precoma the other half was not. Furthermore, jurors tend to rely on factors that are known not to strongly predict identification accuracy. In over 300 cases, the eyewitness testimony was the sole “evidence” used in conviction. military members in a mock prisoner of war camp. Eyewitness testimony is an important area of research in cognitive psychology and human memory. One piece of research that has explored factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, comes from Loftus and Palmer (1974). * Deffenbacher – MA of studies found considerable support for a negative correlation between anxiety and EWT meaning the more anxious the less accurate their testimonies were. and Memon et al. One source of misleading information comes from leading questions. Exposure time to the event or object of focus is an event factor. One factor that is thought to have a significant effect on eyewitness memory is the degree of emotional arousal or stress experienced by the witness during the crime. One of the most widely known studies into anxiety affecting eyewitness testimony is Loftus’ study to find out if anxiety during a witnessed incident affects the accuracy of later identification. Laboratory based studies have generally shown impaired recall in people who have witnessed unpleasant or anxiety-inducing situations (e.g., research by Loftus). Loftus and palmer were interested in seeing how misleading questions affected eyewitness testimony, they conducted a lab experiment in which 45 students were shown films of traffic accidents, they were then asked a question about how fast the car was going, students were either given the verb hit, smashed, contacted, collided or bumped. Many people throughout Western North Carolina believe eyewitness testimony is one of the most solid types of evidence in criminal cases. Loftus and Palmer were interested to see how something as simple as a misleading question affected those who were taken as eyewitnesses. PSHYCHOLOGY OUTLINE AND EVALUATE THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE ACCURACY OF EWT( EYEWITNESS TESTIMONY) One of the most important practical applications of memory research involves EWT (eyewitness testimony). (1) Point: Research has contradicted Loftus’ study suggesting that anxiety can improve the accuracy of EWT. Eyewitness testimony can be an incredibly compelling form of evidence during criminal justice proceedings in Austin. Among those who were under moderate stress (not threatened with physical This information is then delivered by the bystander in a courtroom, where the jury must pay special attention and may even come to a decision based on this, somewhat reliable piece of evidence. The man then emerged from the laboratory holding a knife covered in blood. ...Eye Witness Testimony Improving the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, including the use of the cognitive interview. Evaluation: This is a weakness as it goes against Loftus’ finding that anxiety reduces EWT accuracy and suggests that anxiety-creating situations don’t always divert attention from important features of the situation.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'psychologyhub_co_uk-box-4','ezslot_3',113,'0','0'])); (2) Point: Loftus’s study can be criticised as being unethical. expert testimony is based on ‘a reliable body of knowledge or experience’.15 Combining both these empirical and legal questions, we argue that the categorical rejection of all expert evidence on the credibility and reliability of witness testimony is not justified, but nor is … Juries tend to pay close attention to eyewitness testimony and generally find it a reliable source of information. convicted. During the acquisition process, there are a number of factors that can affect an eyewitness’ report of an event. Loftus believed that the anxiety caused by the weapon (i.e., blood –stained knife) narrowed the focus of attention for the witness and took attention away from the face of the man – therefore making their recall (EWT) less detailed and less accurate. Eyewitness testimony is a legal term. By: Megan Hong face acknowledgment in other races. * Christianson and Hubinnette questioned real witnesses to robberies and compared those who were involved (a hostage etc) to those that were not involved (onlookers) and found those that were involved and therefore had higher anxiety had better recall than those that just witnessed it. People who are not at all stressed, and people who are very stressed will be less accurate eyewitnesses that those who are under a moderate amount of stress. A key factor is the use of misleading information (information that suggests a desired response), especially in the form of leading questions and post-event discussion. A study showing the effect of age on EWT was carried out by Flin et al, he asked children and adults the same questions about an incident they had witnessed, one day after the event and then again after five … However, research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors: Anxiety / Stress In 1976, the Devlin report examined over 2000 identity parades in the U.K. Of the 2000 parades, 45% resulted in a suspect being identified and out of these, 82% were eventually convicted of a crime. I have the AO1 bit down - I have written about studies by Flin et al. However, other research (e.g., Foster et al; Christianson and Hubinette) into real-life incidents involving high levels of stress, have shown that in such situations, memory can be detailed, accurate and long-lasting. Cognitive psychologists believe that under stressful situations a person can encode the Outline and evaluate the research into eyewitness testimony. A01: Loftus and Palmer (1974). After one day they were asked to identify their interrogator’s from an However, inaccuracies in EWT are common, accounting for about 75% of incorrect convictions later found to be innocent using DNA evidence. Eyewitness testimony can be unreliable due to conditions at the scene of a crime, memory “contamination” and misrepresentation during trial. A strength of both of these studies is that they are naturalistic experiments, so have more ecological validity, but the study doesn’t take into account individual differences, because different people respond to anxiety in different... StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers & Book Notes, Without Connection to Others There Is No Me, Zoophilia: Human Sexual Behavior and Local Dog Shelter. ... identify three factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness Misleading information is where a person may be asked a question to either provoke a specific answer or lead the witness to an out of context situation. sleep deprivation they were interrogated. The participants were later asked to pick out the person they saw leave the room with the knife/pen from 50 photographs. Word Count = 799 (Not including headings and bibliography) This study did not lack mundane realism as the participants were real witnesses. If PsychBoost is helping in your studies, consider https://www.patreon.com/psychboost - I'm making A-level psych perks for patreons! Choosing 3 studies, perhaps 1 lab study and 2 real life ones, and describing them in simple paragraphs would be sufficient. Cohen describes “erroneous eyewitness testimony” as being the “leading cause of wrongful conviction”. Witness confidenc… We review major developments in the experimental literature concerning the way that various factors relate to the accuracy of eyewitness identification. Every year, more than 75,000 eyewitnesses identify criminal suspects in the U.S., and studies suggest that as many as a third of them are wrong. There is also another study, Christianson and Hubinette, interviewed people who had witnessed genuine bank robberies and found that the people who had been subjected to the greatest anxiety had the most detailed and accurate recall. Discuss Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony Essay Sample. Procedure:eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'psychologyhub_co_uk-medrectangle-3','ezslot_1',111,'0','0'])); Those who had witness the man holding a pen correctly identified the target 49% of the time, compared to those who had witness the man holding a knife, who correctly identified the target 33% of the time. The term ‘eye witness testimony' refers to the of exploration into the accuracy and reliability of storage concerning significant events, ... Outline and Evaluate Factors Influencing Eye Witness Testimony Essay. These researchers investigated the impact of leading questions on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony, where the wording/ phrasing of a certain question leads the interviewee to a certain response. stress) were correct. In the control condition, participants heard an amicable discussion about an equipment failure, a man then appeared from the room with greasy hands holding a pen. The guilt or innocence of people is often decided on the accuracy of the memories of eyewitnesses. More than 2,000 studies on eyewitnesses in recent decades have determined that recollections are prone to decay, distortion, and suggestion. ... Further research by Loftus and Palmer supports the role of misleading information affecting the accuracy of EWT. They asked participants to estimate the speed of two cars, changing cues provided in the question. Outline and evaluate how retrieval failure due to the absence of cues leads to forgetting (12 marks AS, 16 marks A-level) Factors affecting eyewitness testimony. Eyewitness testimony is an important area of research in cognitive psychology and human memory. The significance of eyewitness testimony was highlighted in this report and resulted in much more research being undertaken. Using trial simulation methods, research demonstrates that jurors are often insensitive to the factors that are known to influence eyewitness memory: stress experienced by the witness, weapon focus, and the influence of suggestive identification procedures. Factors affecting Eyewitness Testimony. Eye witness testimony is a statement given under oath which police departments widely reply on. But only 34% of those that WERE threatened with physical harm (high There isn’t a simple relationship between emotional arousal and the accuracy of EWT. However this study lacked mundane realism. Factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony: misleading information, ... the individual believes that the post-event information is in fact the original memory and falsely report this during testimony questioning. It has happened time and time again. * Linked to anxiety – if there is a weapon involved is attention driven only to weapon? harm), 76% were right. Why are so many eyewitnesses mistaken? Factors which can influence EWT are; misleading questions, post event information, emotional arousal, stress, cognitive interview, weapon focus effect and age. Factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony: misleading information, including leading questions and post-event discussion; anxiety. ...Outline and evaluate research into the effects of anxiety on the accuracy of eye witness testimony. The knife became the central detail and was what the participants focussed on and the man’s face became the peripheral detail, which meant that it was unlikely that it would be remembered accurately. Post-event discussion is information added t… Laboratory studies and some ‘real life’ studies have generally shown impaired recall in people who have witnessed particularly distressing or anxiety induced situations. taking inquiries and many more. Outline and evaluate the effect of anxiety on eyewitness testimony AO1 AO2 Yerkes Dodson law – states that there is an optimum level of anxiety for accurate eyewitness testimony. There is an organization called the Innocence Factors Affecting the Accuracy of Eyewitness Identification . Essay Plans. Eyewitness testimony can create a number of problems for police and prosecutors. Yuille and Cutshall interviewed people who had witnessed a real life shooting and found that recall was very accurate despite high levels of anxiety, however, the people who were subjected to the highest levels of anxiety were nearest to the incident so would have been able to see more clearly what happened. Eye witness testimonies are affected by a number of factors, but the one that I am going to focus on is anxiety. The weapon focus effect phenomenon as identified by Loftus 1979, she asked participants to sit outside a laboratory where they thought they were hearing a genuine exchange between people inside the laboratory. Laughery et al (1971) tested subjects on their recall based on the exposure time to a picture, showed one at a time of different positions of a human face. However you could criticise the Loftus and Palmers study and claim that it was not done in a real life situation so it may not have had the same impact as maybe a real life accident may have had as many may have not been emotionally effective. Outline and evaluate leading questions and post-event discussion as factors affecting the accuracy of eyewitness testimony (16 marks) Describe: Leading questions are phrased in a way that influences/prompts a certain response Research: Two conditions shown the same video. Please join StudyMode to read the full document. * Loftus et al... ...Eyewitness Testimony 1 information incompletely or inaccurately (Deffenbacher, Bornstein, Penrod, &McGorty, 2004). This is known as post-event discussion. This shows that in real life eyewitness testimony anxiety can heighten the accuracy of recall (Christian and Hubbinette, 1993) whereas Loftus (1979) suggested that anxiety particularly posed by a weapon may decrease recall accuracy. In the experimental condition, participants were subject to a hostile discussion, followed by the sound of breaking glass and overturned furniture, a man then emerged from the room holding a knife covered in blood. Eyewitness Testimony 2 ...Eye Witness Testimony Perhaps the issue at hand was not important to us at the time, and ...The Inconsistency of There are factors that affect the accuracy of eyewitness testimony such as emotions, fundamental attribution bias, face recognition in other races, leading questions and many more. Majo Investigated how misleading information can alter memory post event. Loftus then supplied participants with 50 photos and asked them to identify the man who had come out of the room. Ideally this recollection of events is detailed; however this is not always the case. Laboratory study Loftus (1979) asked participants to wait outside a room before the study began. Here is some good news; compared to the old specification, the new AS and A-level psychology content you’re required to know for factors affecting eyewitness testimony have reduced. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. We've all experienced, at one time or another, our own memories failing us at times, and this may have been due to a number of factors. ... 06 Outline and briefly evaluate locus of control as an explanation of resistance to social influence. Outline and evaluate research into the effects of leading questions on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. Grantham University There are factors that affect the truth of eyewitness testimony such as emotions. Moreover the participants were awaiting for something to happen to therefore you result in demand characteristics. * Anxiety It refers to; an account given by person(s) of an event they’ve witnessed. After 48 hours of being deprived of food and Research into eye witness testimonies being affected by anxiety is mixed and It is believed that eye witness testimony is most accurate when the anxiety level is somewhere in between low and high anxiety. In lieu of an abstract, below is the article's first paragraph. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! This includes information about the perpetrator(s) as well as information about the crime and crime scene. * Loftus et al – participants heard an argument then saw a man in a pen stained shirt with a pen in is hand or a man in a blood stained shirt and a paper knife in his hand. Outline And Evaluate Factors Influencing Eye Witness Testimony Harvard Case Study Solution and Analysis of Harvard Business Case Studies Solutions – Assignment HelpIn most courses studied at Harvard Business schools, students are provided with a case study. and Loftus et al. Eyewitness testimonies’ have been considered a credible source in the past, but have recently come under attack as forensics now support psychologists in their claim that memories and individual perceptions are unreliable; as they are easily manipulated, altered, and biased. Description, AO1 – Research into factors (anxiety) affecting the accuracy of EWT: Loftus (1979), This study aimed to investigate effect of anxiety levels on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony. Eye witness testimonies are the evidence given in court or in police investigation by someone who has witnessed a crime or an accident. 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