why south africa called rsa

The coastal belt below the south and south-western stretches of the Great Escarpment contains several ranges of Cape Fold Mountains which run parallel to the coast, separating the Great Escarpment from the ocean. The white minority (less than 20%)[62] controlled the vastly larger black majority. The Cape Floral Region, being identified as one of the global biodiversity hotspots, will be hit very hard by climate change. When awarding the prize, the Swedish Academy stated that Coetzee "in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider."[232]. The metropolitan municipalities, which govern the largest urban agglomerations, perform the functions of both district and local municipalities. It also hosted the 2003 Cricket World Cup, the 2007 World Twenty20 Championship. South African cuisine is diverse; foods from many cultures are enjoyed by all and especially marketed to tourists who wish to sample the large variety available. The coastal belt to the north of the Cape Peninsula is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean and the first row of north–south running Cape Fold Mountains to the east. [106], With more than 22,000 different higher plants, or about 9% of all the known species of plants on Earth,[111] South Africa is particularly rich in plant diversity. Among the obstacles were the presence of the independent states of the Boers and the Kingdom of Zululand and its army. [189][190][191] A series of anti-immigrant riots occurred in South Africa beginning on 11 May 2008. Although football (soccer) commands the greatest following among the youth, other sports like basketball, surfing and skateboarding are increasingly popular. [43] Some of the earliest mixed race communities in the country were formed through unions between vrijburgers, their slaves, and various indigenous peoples. [38] Representatives of the British East India Company did call sporadically at the Cape in search of provisions as early as 1601, but later came to favour Ascension Island and St. Helena as alternative ports of refuge. This was south of the furthest point reached in 1485 by his predecessor, the Portuguese navigator Diogo Cão (Cape Cross, north of the bay). [63] Queen Elizabeth II lost the title Queen of South Africa, and the last Governor-General, Charles Robberts Swart, became State President. [45], Great Britain occupied Cape Town between 1795 and 1803 to prevent it from falling under the control of the French First Republic, which had invaded the Low Countries. They displaced, conquered and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. Click on a coloured area to see an article about English in that country or region, Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}30°S 25°E / 30°S 25°E / -30; 25, This article is about the Republic of South Africa. South African art includes the oldest art objects in the world, which were discovered in a South African cave, and dated from 75,000 years ago. )[90] South of the Lowveld the annual rainfall increases as one enters KwaZulu-Natal Province, which, especially near the coast, is subtropically hot and humid. [132] In an attempt to reduce crime rate, the police arrested over 500 undocumented foreigners in a raid in August 2019. Eventually, though, the war was lost, resulting in the termination of the Zulu nation's independence. One of the first well known novels written by a black author in an African language was Solomon Thekiso Plaatje's Mhudi, written in 1930. The Dutch-influenced folk art of the Afrikaner trekboers and the urban white artists, earnestly following changing European traditions from the 1850s onwards, also contributed to this eclectic mix which continues to evolve today. The Afrikaans for "South Africa" is "Suid-Afrika" so SA would be more logical. [92][93] (These parallel ranges of fold mountains are shown on the map, above left. South Africa has three capital cities: executive Pretoria, judicial Bloemfontein and legislative Cape Town. By 1936, there were an estimated 2,003,857 white South Africans, and by 1946 the number had reached 2,372,690. The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme rule of law in the country. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, this population numbered approximately 144,700 in 2007. South Africa is also a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, Southern African Customs Union (SACU), Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), G20, G8+5, and the Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa. This is not a province, but an independent country formally called the Kingdom of Lesotho. [32][33], Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were already present south of the Limpopo River (now the northern border with Botswana and Zimbabwe) by the 4th or 5th century CE (see Bantu expansion). Despite opposition both within and outside the country, the government legislated for a continuation of apartheid. VI, p. 750. [184] Sanitation access increased from 71% to 79% during the same period. The ANC has been the governing political party in South Africa since the end of apartheid. The first human-to-human heart transplant was performed by cardiac surgeon Christiaan Barnard at Groote Schuur Hospital in December 1967, Max Theiler developed a vaccine against yellow fever, Allan McLeod Cormack pioneered X-ray computed tomography (CT scan), and Aaron Klug developed crystallographic electron microscopy techniques. Many of the unofficial languages of the San and Khoikhoi people contain regional dialects stretching northwards into Namibia and Botswana, and elsewhere. Which means "South African"; the Dutch for "South Africa" is "Zuid-Afrika." He reached as far up the eastern coast of Africa as, what he called, Rio do Infante, probably the present-day Groot River, in May 1488, but on his return he saw the Cape, which he first named Cabo das Tormentas (Cape of Storms). These bonds are called RSA Retail Savings Bonds. South Africa has a mixed economy, the second largest in Africa after Nigeria. When looking at a map of the country, you will also notice Lesotho in the middle of South Africa. The then Prime Minister Jan Smuts wrote the preamble to the UN Charter. There are an estimated 200,000 indigenous traditional healers in South Africa, and up to 60% of South Africans consult these healers,[207] generally called sangomas or inyangas. In this regard it is fourth only to Bolivia, India, and Zimbabwe in number. [208], South African Muslims comprise mainly of those who are described as Coloureds and those who are described as Indians. South African literature emerged from a unique social and political history. However, since then the post-apartheid epoch and associated concepts such as rainbowism and nation building have been displaced by orthodox post-colonialism in South Africa. The struggle to control these important economic resources was a factor in relations between Europeans and the indigenous population and also between the Boers and the British.[51]. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth-highest number in the world. pop_jop/Getty Images. [20][21] However, crime, poverty and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people. 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[130] Many emigrants from South Africa also state that crime was a major factor in their decision to leave. [113]South Africa is one of the worst affected countries in the world when it comes to invasion by alien species with many (e.g., black wattle, Port Jackson willow, Hakea, Lantana and Jacaranda) posing a significant threat to the native biodiversity and the already scarce water resources. [220] The three dominant hospital groups, Mediclinic, Life Healthcare and Netcare, together control 75% of the private hospital market. [16] It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere, and the most populous country located entirely south of the equator. [122], In 2008, South Africa placed fifth out of 48 sub-Saharan African countries on the Ibrahim Index of African Governance. In 1878 and 1879 three British attacks were successfully repelled until Sir Garnet Wolseley defeated Sekhukhune in November 1879 with an army of 2,000 British soldiers, Boers and 10,000 Swazis. It is about the same size as Colombia, twice the size of France, three times as big as Japan, four times the size of Italy and five times the size of the United Kingdom.[85]. It is famous for the most extensive areas of indigenous forests in South Africa (a generally forest-poor country). South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. Ultimately, FW de Klerk opened bilateral discussions with Nelson Mandela in 1993 for a transition of policies and government. Stretching latitudinally from 22°S to 35°S and longitudinally from 17°E to 33°E, South Africa’s surface area covers 1 219 602 km2.Physical features range from bushveld, grasslands, forests, deserts and majestic mountain peaks, to wide unspoilt beaches and coastal wetlands.The country shares common boundaries with Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Swaziland, while the Mountain Kingdom of Lesotho is lan… South Africa also has one possession, the small sub-Antarctic archipelago of the Prince Edward Islands, consisting of Marion Island (290 km2 or 110 sq mi) and Prince Edward Island (45 km2 or 17 sq mi) (not to be confused with the Canadian province of the same name). 15.1% had no religious affiliation, 0.6% were "other" and 1.4% were "unspecified. A significant extent of the Bushveld exists in the north-east including Kruger National Park and the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, as well as in the far north in the Waterberg Biosphere. South Africa houses many endemic species, among them the critically endangered riverine rabbit (Bunolagus monticullaris) in the Karoo. [45] Vrijburgers who became independent farmers on the frontier were known as Boers, with some adopting semi-nomadic lifestyles being denoted as trekboers. Dias continued down the western coast of southern Africa. Association football is the most popular sport in South Africa. Within South African indigenous cultures, the rainbow is associated with hope and a bright future (as in Xhosa culture). [71] Poverty among whites, which was previously rare, increased. These systems have been widely criticised due to their large capital and operating costs. In Mpumalanga Province, several stone circles have been found along with the stone arrangement that has been named Adam's Calendar, the ruins are thought to be created by the Bakone a Northern Sotho people.[34][35]. [117] The President appoints a Deputy President and Ministers, who form the Cabinet which consists of Departments and Ministries. III, p. 655. Readers Digest Association, Cape Town. In at least some major South African ecosystems, an exceptionally high percentage of fungi are highly specific in terms of the plants with which they occur. The most southerly portion of this coastal belt is known as the Swartland and Malmesbury Plain, which is an important wheat growing region, relying on winter rains. South African cuisine is heavily meat-based and has spawned the distinctively South African social gathering known as the braai, a variation of the barbecue. [199] It is the second most commonly spoken language outside of the household, after Zulu.[200]. [179] Many immigrants to South Africa continue to live in poor conditions, and the immigration policy has become increasingly restrictive since the year 1994. South Africa has lost a large area of natural habitat in the last four decades, primarily due to overpopulation, sprawling development patterns and deforestation during the 19th century. [36] On 4 December, he landed at Walfisch Bay (now known as Walvis Bay in present-day Namibia). [91] The climate at the foot of this part of the Drakensberg is temperate. Why would the official abbreviation come from the country's name in Dutch? The National Council of Provinces, the upper house, consists of ninety members, with each of the nine provincial legislatures electing ten members. [216], According to the South African Institute of Race Relations, the life expectancy in 2009 was 71 years for a white South African and 48 years for a black South African. ", "Sack SA Health Minister – world's AIDS experts", "Situation Analysis. [183], Two distinctive features of the South African water sector are the policy of free basic water and the existence of water boards, which are bulk water supply agencies that operate pipelines and sell water from reservoirs to municipalities. South African politician, academic, and noted poet Jeremy Cronin cautions: Allowing ourselves to sink into a smug rainbowism will prove to be a terrible betrayal of the possibilities for real transformation, real reconciliation, and real national unity that are still at play in our contemporary South African reality. [192][193], Statistics South Africa asks people to describe themselves in the census in terms of five racial population groups. [37] Dias' feat of navigation was later immortalised in Luís de Camões' Portuguese epic poem, The Lusiads (1572). [139], Between 1994 and 2018, there were more than 500 xenophobic attacks against foreigners in South Africa. The country is a member of the Group of 77 and chaired the organisation in 2006. [169], During 1995–2003, the number of formal jobs decreased and informal jobs increased; overall unemployment worsened. [9] The two next ones are of European origin: Afrikaans (13.5%) developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans; English (9.6%) reflects the legacy of British colonialism, and is commonly used in public and commercial life. [54][55][56][57][58], Eight years after the end of the Second Boer War and after four years of negotiation, an act of the British Parliament (South Africa Act 1909) granted nominal independence, while creating the Union of South Africa on 31 May 1910. By the early 17th century, Portugal's maritime power was starting to decline, and English and Dutch merchants competed to oust Lisbon from its lucrative monopoly on the spice trade. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. [39] Dutch interest was aroused after 1647, when two employees of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) were shipwrecked at the Cape for several months. Muslims accounted for 1.5% of the population, Hindus 1.2%,[205] traditional African religion 0.3% and Judaism 0.2%. The security forces cracked down on internal dissent, and violence became widespread, with anti-apartheid organisations such as the African National Congress (ANC), the Azanian People's Organisation (AZAPO), and the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC) carrying out guerrilla warfare[64] and urban sabotage. 1.4 % were `` unspecified the Primary metaphor, the government after he released the novel a dry white.... Influence result in a series of caves in Gauteng Province Restrictive Labour regulations have contributed the. 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