abortion in pakistan wiki

The revisions sought to conform better to Islamic teachings regarding offenses against the human body. [1], According to Dr. Ansar Ali Khan, an advisor of reproductive health to the United Nations Population Fund in Pakistan, "A combination of factors like non-availability of services, baseless traditional beliefs and misconception play a big role. Her parents betrothed her to a youth of the Chadar tribe, but before the marriage could place, Mirza ran away with her. The government spends on average around Rs. It left us wondering whether our society is heading back to primitive age,” Anwar Kazmi, a senior manager in Edhi Foundation Karachi, told The News. They know of 890 newborns killed in 2008, 999 in 2009 and about 1,210 in 2010, and this counts only the large cities. A report from 1884 states: The Kharrals are the most northerly of the great Ravi tribes, occupying a great portion of the land between Gugera and the Lahore district on both sides of the river, and extending some distance into the Gujranwala district. Using data from the PDHS 2006-7, approximately 35% of FP users received their FP services from the public sector, 12% from NGOs and private providers and the overwhelming 52% bought their methods over the counter from shops, making FP services largely subject to market forces. The scheme's goal was to have a vast impact in the shortest time possible, with a reduction of the birth rate from 50 to 40 per 1000 by 1970. The aim of these services was to reduce the fertility rate and slow population growth. [30], Rural and Urban Healthcare Disparities That Contribute to Pakistan’s High Child Mortality Rate. However, Bhutto found that he could not fund many of his socialist promises, and so allowed economic assistance from USAID. According to the World Health Organization and Population Action International, as of 2007, "only 16 percent of women receive at least four antenatal care visits during pregnancy, fewer than one-third of births are attended by skilled health personnel, and the maternal mortality ratio, at 320 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births, remains high. The Ministry of Health (Pakistan) started a similar program in 1994 called "lady health workers." [4], Similarly to other countries in South Asia, Pakistani households have a strong preference for sons. [29] In 2006 there were 96,000 lady health workers. [1][5] The rate of unwanted pregnancies is higher for women living in poor or rural environments; this is especially important since two-thirds of women live in rural areas. Pakistan's high abortion and low contraception rates reflect a family planning policy in shambles, says Abdul Ghaffar Khan, director general of Pakistan's population program wing. 06 Apr 2011. [7] Its leader, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, needed to gain legitimacy and popularity by taking an anti-American, anti-capitalist, and anti-Ayub Khan-stance. Abortion is illegal in Pakistan, except if needed to preserve the pregnant woman' life or health. Induced abortions are known to occur in Pakistan, Zia enforced strict laws against adultery (punishable by death), rape, intoxication, and theft. Waheed, a member of the All-Pakistan Women's Association, began advocating for birth control when her maid died from an attempt to abort her own pregnancy. According to the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, Pakistan's rates of child mortality (neonatal mortality rate: 44.2; infant mortality rate: 61.2; child under 5 mortality rate: 74.9)[10] nearly double the worldwide average (neonatal mortality rate: 18; infant mortality rate: 29.4; child under 5 mortality rate: 39.1)[11] set by UNICEF Global. Family Planning in Pakistan: Applying What We Have Learned. Even when one adjusts for underreporting for private sector and NGO services, it is likely that the current CPR may actually be unchanged from the PDHS 2006-7. [7] Son preference prevails in rural areas, due to male inheritance of agricultural land, and males being seen as better suited to work the land. [29], "Infanticide is on the rise in Pakistan | Al Jazeera America", "Preference for boys and length of birth intervals in Pakistan", "Have a Son, Gain a Voice: Son Preference and Female Participation in Household Decision Making", "Preference for Boys and Length of Birth Intervals in Pakistan", "Son preference and within-household bargaining position of Pakistani women", "Money matters: Gender equality and a baby's sex in Pakistan", "Evidence of son preference and resulting demographic and health outcomes in Pakistan", http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnadm056.pdf, "Adolescents and Youth in Pakistan 2001-2002: A Nationally Representative Survey", To estimate an equation explaining the determinants of Dowry, A general theory of gender preferences for children, "Abandoned, Aborted, or Left for Dead: These Are the Vanishing Girls of Pakistan", https://iussp.org/sites/default/files/event_call_for_papers/SRB%20Abstract%20-%20IUSSP%202013_fin.pdf, http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/abortion/doc/pakistan.doc, "Karachi becoming a killing field for newborn girls", "Infanticide on the rise: 1,210 babies found dead in 2010, says Edhi", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Female_infanticide_in_Pakistan&oldid=988095277, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 01:22. The total change in users of FP services between 2006 and 2012 was around 700,000 women. Mirza was a Kharral of the Sahi muhin... went as a boy to Khewa in Jhang, where he fell in love with his cousin Sahiban, the daughter of the chief man of the place. There were 118 males per 100 females. Women bearing at least one son have higher say in household decision-making. Muslim populations are incredibly diverse, varying by race, language, and degree of religious conservatism. This is comparable to the late C20th sex ratio in the area, now divided between India and Pakistan.[2]. As many as 72 dead girls have been buried in the first four months of this year by Edhi Foundation alone in the metropolitan city. In the DHS less than 10% of FP nonusers cited a religious reason for their non-use. The death of the victim is viewed as a way to restore the reputation and honour of the family. However, under the 18th Amendment to the Constitution, the Ministry was devolved and its responsibilities were shifted to Provincial Population Welfare Departments. [5] Additionally, levels of schooling are very low in Pakistan, allowing men to have more power in decision-making. [5] Though Pakistani couples commonly cite religious reasons for avoiding birth control, there is not one definitive agreement about family planning and contraception in Islam. Boys are often given better access to resources, healthcare, and education. “We have been dealing with such cases for years and there are a few such incidents which shook our souls as much. There is however provision of ‘necessary treatment’ which allows for abortion if a woman’s pregnancy has not gone beyond 120 … Under Pakistan's law, abortion is only legal to preserve a mother's health. [1], In 1950, Pakistan's population reached 37 million people, making it the world's 13th most populous country. Misoprostol hotline Pakistan, June 2010. In 1990, the Pakistan government revised the colonial-era Penal Code of 1860 with respect to abortion. Unfortunately, the program has remained fairly unchanged over the past 35 years due to implementation problems involving over-centralization, lack of coordination, and structural flaws.[7]. Population Reference Bureau. [18] The conduct of family members reflects upon family honor and the way the family perceives itself, and is perceived by others. [7] At the onset of the program, condoms were the most available method of contraception, but by 1966 the Intrauterine Device (IUD) had replaced it has the "corner-stone" of the Scheme. * 1 In 2006–2007, 24% of all births in Pakistan were unintended. [14] In 1990, the penal code was provisionally adapted in order to better reflect Islamic Law, and finally was made permanent in 1997. Pakistan's high abortion and low contraception rates reflect a family planning policy in shambles, says Abdul Ghaffar Khan, director general of Pakistan's population program wing. Of the 2.4 million unwanted pregnancies, 900,000 are end in induced abortions. [17] Therefore, it currently plays an important role in the provision of care of patients undergoing abortions. Although many public health specialists feel that religion plays a major role in resistance to the use of FP in Pakistan, the Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey of 2006-7 showed that religious reasons accounted for only 9% of FP non-use. [28] The number of infanticides, particularly of girls, is on the increase, according to the Edhi Foundation. "[2] In addition, Ali Khan stated that "a fairly large number of the population believes the use of artificial contraceptives for family planning is against nature and also against Islam. [1] Also in Pakistan's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper is the objective of increasing contraceptive use 57 percent by 2012. One study in 2002 showed that in areas with 2 or more community-based workers there was a 7% increase in the use of modern, reversible contraceptive methods. This is exactly equal to the increase in number of women served by NGOs (supported by donors such as USAID, DFID, KfW, GIZ, David and Lucile Packard Foundation etc. A study released in 2005, by the Population Council of Pakistan and the Guttmacher Institute, found that 890,000 abortions occur in Pakistan every year and, given that this data was collected mostly through women hospitalized for post abortion complications, one can expect this figure to be grossly understated. One of Pakistan's largest problems is its rapidly expanding population and their limited access to necessary essentials such as readily available healthcare, doctor's, and basic sexual education. Due to a lack of access (especially in the rural areas), no clarity (dearth of awareness, understanding and education), fear of legal persecution (especially in the public sector), an inability of health care professionals to interpret the law, as well as a form of FP, women are often forced to seek abortion by untrained providers. While Pakistan is not among those countries which lets women make this decision on her body, the abortion laws … Wajihuddin Ahmed, the Family Planning Commissioner during Yahya Khan's rule, focused on reducing pregnancies in women "rather than meeting contraceptive targets alone" and introducing the pill to Pakistani women. An honor killing is the homicide of a member of a family or social group by other members, due to the belief the victim has brought dishonour upon the family or community. "[2] Unlike family planning in Iran, a neighboring Islamic republic, Pakistan's family planning program has failed in recent years due to neglect and constant policy changes as a result of political upheaval. 23 percent of these women are hospitalized for treatment of complications. [1][5] The most commonly reported reasons for married women electing not to use family planning methods include the belief that fertility should be determined by God (28 percent); opposition to use by the woman, her husband, others or a perceived religious prohibition (23 percent); infertility (15 percent); and concerns about health, side effects or the cost of family planning (12 percent). However, at the time of writing, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh and Punjab are working on individual Health and Population strategies. Over the 15-year span of 1964-1979, USAID "spent over $30 million on Pakistan's population programme; during 1965–75 US AID provided 40% of total programme inputs. This report is cited in a 2010 book on son preference, giving the context of the Mirza Sahiban tragic romance, and putting the practice in a wider socio-economic analysis. It is also important to note that other elements of population development such as education, capacity building, economic development, climate etc. [21][22][23] Islamic scholars permit an abortion within 120 days of pregnancy in Pakistan. World Health Organization and Global Health Workforce Alliance. In 2012, the year of their last study, the Guttmacher Institute estimated there were 2.25 million abortions in Pakistan with 623,000 women treated for post-abortion complications. A research studies conducted in 2002 and 2003 (by Population Council-Pakistan) reveals that a n estimated 890, 000 induced abortions occur annually in Pakistan. It was said to be "safe, cheap, reversible," and it required "little user action. "[1], Dating from 2002, Pakistan's current family planning policy reflects the government's concern with rising population trends and poverty. However, the large discovery in Karachi shows that many of the female infants were killed because of the local Islamic clerics, who ordered out of wedlock babies should be disregarded. In Pakistan, as in many Islamic and South Asian countries, induced abortion is against the law except to save a woman’s life. UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Abortion laws vary considerably between countries and have changed over time. [1] Challenges to Pakistani's well-being, opportunities for education and employment, and access to health care are escalated due to the country's continuously-growing population. At over 2000 dowry-related deaths per year, and annual rates exceeding 2.45 deaths per 100,000 women from dowry-related violence, Pakistan has the highest reported number of dowry death rates per 100,000 women in the world. "Policy-making in Pakistan's population programme." The given data is just tip of the iceberg as Edhi foundation maintains the data of those cities where it provides services.[25]. This program recruited married women, with at least 10 years of schooling, that lived in rural areas, and trained them to provide family planning services to their communities. [12] Some populations are part of countries run by Islamic law, while others live under secular governments. [7] Khan spoke at the FPAP's first national seminar in 1959, speaking on the ‘menace over overpopulation'. [14][15], Pakistan has a strong 'culture of honor', where a female can easily tarnish the 'honor' and 'reputation' of her family through certain behaviors (often related to chastity), whether these behaviors are real or suspected by the community. [1], The Family Planning Association of Pakistan (FPAP), now called "Rahnuma", was founded in Lahore by Saeeda Waheed in 1953. And Karachi has topped in this notorious ranking with 180 cases in 2017. Abortion in Pakistan is not a go-to option. Isqat-i-Hamal. Thirdly, it had political utility for a military leader with no popular mandate to his leadership and in need of a development strategy. The Official Abortion Law. Pakistan's Lady Health Worker programme. The accompanying concerns of this crisis have resulted in extremely high neonatal, infant and child mortality rates. … Instead, govt must encourage use of contraceptives through advertisement campaigns. 338. This represents an increase of 700,000 users since the last DHS; around 2/3 of this difference may be attributed to increased population and nearly all these were supplied by NGOs. Demographics play a large role in Pakistan's development and security since the recent change from military rule to civilian leadership. Abortion is a taboo and is done in very risky way in Pakistan. Since 1997 abortions carried out before the unborn child’s organs have been formed are prohibited except when performed in good faith for the purpose of saving the life of the woman or providing necessary … In 2009 the Ministry of Population sought to revise the Population Policy. In a move looking to counter Bhutto's government and as a gesture to his religious constituency, Zia froze the existing family planning program and banned publicity for family planning activities. [1] At present there is no federal ministry of health or population welfare and therefore no population policy. [5], When Ayub Khan was overthrown in 1969, religious demonstrators attempted to discredit the leader morally using the slogan "Family planning, for those who want free sex! [7], Pakistan's first Family Planning Scheme was a part of the country's Third Five Year Plan (1965–1970). [5] In Pakistan, many local religious figures are supportive of family planning and have begun discussions in their communities in order to promote the health of women and children.[5]. That should be avoided at any cost. 2004. JPMA April 2013, Research and Development Solutions Policy Brief Series #1: Overview of Family Planning in Pakistan, Research and Development Solutions Policy Brief Series #4: Utilization and Costs of Family Planning in Pakistan, National Health Accounts of Pakistan 2005-6, Research and Development Solutions Policy Brief Series #13: Services and Uptake and Trends over time, Research and Development Solutions Policy Brief Series #43. This Scheme became the template for all subsequent family planning agenda, but Before the marriage place. Done in very risky way in Pakistan. [ 2 ] 3.1 million girls are in! Unmodified word abortion generally refers to an induced abortion, or less frequently `` induced ''... 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